Reflective Taba Model of Curriculum, Efland Theory Cognitive

 Taba Model of Curriculum

Hilda Taba is the teacher that create the Taba Curriculum Model does impact the system of education. Due to Hilda Taba focused on teacher perception for student achievement. From Dini presentation, Taba Curriculum Model have an advantage and disadvantage this also relate to the Tyle Curriculum model.

Curriculum defined as the process of selecting, organizing, executing, and evaluating learning experiences on the basis of the needs, abilities, and interests of the learners and the nature of the society or community.

Hilda Taba: Grassroots Approach (7 Step)
1. Diagnosis of learners needs and expectations of the larger society.
2. Formulation of learning objectives.
3. Selection of the learning content.
4. Organization of learning content.
5. Selection of the learning experiences.
6. Organization of learning activities.
7. Determination of what to evaluate and the means of doing it.

Siti Nur Dini: Presentation Slide 

The Seven Step Explanation 

Hilda Taba Journey

Taba Model

The Vidoe 


Efland Theory Cognitive

Arthur Efland explains about cognition in art education, the theory of cognitive are based on Piaget Cognitive Theory. Last week presenter Nazira mentions how our mind related to the movement in doing a thing. The artwork that she shows is also related to herself. She explain the Efland like feelings and emotions, imagination is one of those prickly topics with a history of exclusion from the realm of the cognitive.

Siti Nazia: Presentation

Why Teach Art?

Imagination in Cognition: The Purpose of the Arts

Book by Arthur Efland

Review of The Book by Arthur Efland





Bate Teaching Model

Who is Tony Bates?

He is President and CEO of Tony Bates Associates Ltd and has a private company specializing in training and consultancy of e-learning management, planning, and distance education. Bates creates the foundation for the digital age journey by exploring what it means to be part
of a knowledge-based society and how this shift impacts learning. He had written 12 books one of the digital books as “Teaching in a Digital Age” has been downloaded globally through the world since April 2015 (32,000 times). This book discussed e-learning, online teaching, MOOC’s, teachers in a digital age and others for 21-century learning.


Tony Bate Biography




Visual Culture Model


Visual culture is the aspect of culture expressed in visual images. Many academic fields study this subject, including cultural studies, art history, critical theory, philosophy, and anthropology.

Visual culture, to borrow Nicholas Mirzoeff’s definition, is perhaps best understood as a tactic for studying the functions of a world addressed through pictures, images, and visualizations, rather than through texts and words.

  • Studying visual culture isolates or brackets “visual meditation” or “visual representation” for analysis.
  • However, most of our experience of media is a hybrid of texts, images, and sounds, rather than pure states of any one mode.
  • The visual is always “contaminated” by the non-visual: ideologies, texts, discourses, beliefs, intertextual presuppositions, prior experience and “visual competence”

Visual culture is the visual construction of the social, not just the social construction of vision.
Mitchell, W.J.T., “Showing seeing: a critique of visual culture”, Journal Of Visual Culture, 2002, Vol 1(2), p. 170
Visual culture works towards a social theory of visuality, focusing on questions of what is made visible, who sees what, how seeing, knowing and power are interrelated. It examines the act of seeing as a product of the tensions between external images or objects, and internal thought processes.
Hooper-Greenhill, Eilean, Museums and the Interpretation of Visual Culture, London: Routledge, 2000, p. 14


Infographics below show the random theories that contributed to the visual culture in education scope. vc1. Jacques Lacan’s

Model on Lacan: Tha Gaze

Jacques Lacan (1901-1981)

Lacan: The Mirror Stage

The Split between the Eye and the Gaze

The Gaze

2. John Berger

The Conversation of John Berger Book


Continuum: The Australian Journal of Media & Culture

3. Laura Mulvey



Laura Mulvey: The Male Gaze Theory

Laura Mulvey

4. WJT Mitchell





WJT Mitchell – Iconology: Image, Text, and Ideology

5. Nicholas Mirzoeff

Mirzoeff Nicholas Book Visual Culture


Theory: Nicholas Mirzoeff: An Introduction to Visual Culture 1999

6. Paul Duncum


Duncum_visual_culturalholding aesthetics and ideology in tension

Interview with Paul Duncum by Joao Pedro From April 2009

Paul Duncum_Aesthetics Popular Visual

visual culture jam art, pedagogy and creative resistance


7. Olivia Gude

Art Education Articles by Olivia Gude

GUDE principles of possibility

Postmodern Principles Gude

Principles of possibilityprinciples_of_possibility_olivia_gude

Seven Principles for Visual Cultural Education

Conceptual VS Theoretical Framework

CFTF.jpgWhat are the different with Conceptual Framework and Theoretical Framework?
A conceptual framework is more narrow or analytical in several contexts. A Theoretical framework is group guidance to more border scope.
Both are important in research due to researcher will use proper guideline in applying the framework.

PSV 702 Contemporary Models In Visual Art Education

Learning Theories

Learning theories are a way or principle how individual to recall, retain and understand the knowledge that they learn. The principle is important as a guideline in order to teach our student. As an educator,  it’s important to identify what approach that can be used to promote the learning process.

Three learning theories:

  • Behaviorism
  • Cognitive
  • Constructivism

Learning Theories



Behaviorism explains the behalf of someone to another person. In education, the way educator teaches will respond or react by the learner. Therefore at school teacher the real model to the learner because they responding to environmental stimuli.

Philosophy of Behaviorism

Based on the work of Ivan Pavlov, it demonstrated that behaviors is influenced by environment and could be learned through conditioning and reinforcement. Change in behavior demonstrates some learning. For example, when teacher create an environment and stimuli (such as lectures and presentations) that produce desired behavior, learning thought to happen as a response to that stimuli.

The Character:

  • Give punishment ( for late, skipping class etc)
  • Reward (say “well done!”)
  • Say the positive thing and doing it
  • Be a good example

Behaviorism in philosophy:
Leading developers of behaviorism (in roughly chronological order):

  • Ivan Pavlov
  • Edward Thorndike
  • John B.Watson
  • Edward C.Tolman
  • Clark L.Hull

Behaviorism Model:

  • ADDIE Model
  • Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction



Cognitivism is the way their process the information and gives feedback to the thing that they learn. Information is processed through the sensory registers and goes into the short-term and then long-term memory.

Philosophy of Cognitivism

This will focus on metal process, not verbal process behavior.The learner will absorb environmental situation before decided to do something.

The Character:

  • Problem solving
  • Group discussion
  • Brainstorming
  • Exploring activities


Cognitivism Model:

  • ASSURE Model

Cognitivism Theorist:

  • Marriner David Merill
  • Charles Reigeluth
  • Robert Mills Gagné
  • Jerome Bruner
  • Roger Schank


Constructivism as a paradigm or worldview posits that learning is an active, constructive process. The learner is an information constructor. People actively construct or create their own subjective representations of objective reality. How the learner, learn do project to solve their problem with a design a robot or simple tools.

Philosophy of Constructivism

Piaget’s theory of constructivist learning has had a wide-ranging impact on learning theories and teaching methods in education and is an underlying theme of many education reform movements.Research support for constructivist teaching techniques has been mixed, with some research supporting these techniques and other research contradicting those results.

The Character:

  • Brainstorming
  • Exploring activities
  • Case studies
  • Discover Learning
  • Stimulation

Constructivism Model:

  • ADDIE Model
  • Dick and Carey

Constructivism Theorist:

  • Vygotsky
  • Jean Piaget
  • John Dewey
  • Jerome Bruner




Constructivist Theory: Jerome Bruner

Learning Theories


Behaviorism Theory

Related Theories of Learning

Behaviorist Learning Theory

Behaviorist Approach

The Learning Theories

Behaviorism, Cognitivism, and Constructivism